His fairly brief Wikipedia entry is here. Perhaps the most interesting information there is a list of his Beaux-Arts pupils. They include Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant, Eugène Carrière, Pierre-August Cot, Jules Bastien-Lepage, Henri Gervex, Aristide Maillol, Henri Regnault, Solomon J. Solomon and Adolphe Willette.
As for his art, Cabanel was not a pure pompier school academician, though did produce works of that kind.
Below are examples of Cabanel's paintings in chronological order.
Painted while studying in Rome.
Displayed on his return from Rome.
Probably Cabanel's most famous painting. It can be found in Paris' Musée d'Orsay.
Note the loosely painted setting.
Here everything is hard-edge.
Compare the poses and settings of these ladies painted the same year. Was Cabanel "mailing it in" as his health declined?
Perhaps his last "pompier" work.