The link mentions that he lacked formal architectural training, but instead learned the trade as an apprentice. That was not unusual in his day.
Many of the buildings he designed were religious sites: chapels and churches. Not all his commissions were in New York City and the Northeast -- he designed significant buildings in Chicago, California, and Hawaii as well.
Wikipedia contains a list of his buildings. Many were done in collaboration, and those completed after his death were under the aegis of other architects. That said, it's likely that since the commissions were awarded before he died, he had given clients input as to his design concepts. We can regard the buildings in the images below as essentially his.
Some drawings were of European sites, others were fantasy images.
An early major project.
This photo was taken after most of the first phase was completed. A tower was planned over the transept.
But after Goodhue died, the tower was abandoned and a dome built, as seen in this 1950-vintage photo.
The Museum of Man, my photo from 2010.
Facade, my photo, from 2009.
My photo of part of the interior court.
Most American state capitol buildings have domes. This skyscraper style was unusual, and probably shocking at first. Though there is a small dome at the top of the tower.
Another aerial view, this of an impressive, large structure.
In the Honolulu business district. Another photo by me.