I can't make up my mind as to whether or not this is a good thing. Many artists would be perfectly happy to have become famous or to have painted a famous painting. Others might prefer to be known for their career-wide accomplishments. Few, I would think, would rather remain essentially unknown.
Artists known for a number of their works where none looms over the rest include Rembrandt, Velázquez, David, Monet and Picasso, to name but a few.
Below are examples of famous paintings that, in my judgment, tended to overshadow the artist's other works. They are arranged alphabetically by the artist's name.
By Paul Émile Chabas (1869-1937).
By Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519).
By Robert Indiana (b. 1928).
By Emanuel Leutze (1816-1868).
By Georges-Pierre Seurat (1859-1891).
By Gilbert Stuart (1755-1828).
By Grant Wood (1891-1942).